Distributed Computing Models


Design and implementation of a distributed system requires consideration of the following elements:

Fortunately, most distributed systems employ one of a small set of common models.

Software Layers

First, consider the software architecture of the components of a distributed system.


The lower two layers comprise the platform, such as Intel x86/Windows or PowerPC/MacOS X, that provides OS-level services to the upper layers.

The middleware sits between the platform and the application and its purpose is to mask heterogeneity and provide a consistent programming model for application developers. Some of the abstractions provided by middleware include the following:

Examples of middleware include the following:

Atop the middleware layer sits the application layer. The application layer provides application-specific functionality. Depending on the application, it may or may not make sense to take advantage of existing middleware.

System Architectures

The application layer defines the functional role of each component in a distributed system, and each component may have a different functional role. There are several common architectures employed by distributed systems. The choice of architecture can impact the design considerations described below:

Common architectures for distributed systems are as follows:


The client-server model is probably the most popular paradigm. The server is responsible for accepting, processing, and replying to requests. It is the producer. The client is purely the consumer. It requests the services of the server and accepts the results.

The basic web follows the client-server model. Your browser is the client. It requests web pages from a server (e.g., google.com), waits for results, and displays them for the user.

In some cases, a web server may also act as a client. For example, it may act as a client of DNS or may request other web pages.

Multiple Servers

In reality, a web site is rarely supported with only one server. Such an implementation would not be scalable or reliable. Instead, web sites such as Google or CNN are hosted on many (many many) machines. Services are either replicated, which means that each machine can perform the same task, or partitioned, which means that some machines perform one set of tasks and some machines perform another set of tasks. For example, a site like CNN might serve images from one set of machines and HTML from another set of machines.

Proxies and Caches

To reduce latency, load on the origin server, and bandwidth usage, proxies and caches are also used to deliver content. An end host (your browser) may cache content. In this case, when you first request content, your browser stores a copy on your local machine. Subsequent requests for the same content can be fulfilled by using the cache rather than requesting the content from the origin server.

An organization, like USF, may also deploy a proxy server that can cache content and deliver it to any client within the organization. Again, this reduces latency, and it also reduces bandwidth usage. Suppose that several hundred USF students download the same YouTube video. If a proxy server caches the video after the first student's request, subsequent requests can be satisfied by using the cached content, thereby reducing the number of external requests by several hundred.

CDNs, like Akamai, also fall into this category. However, CDNs work a bit differently than traditional proxy servers. CDNs actively replicate content throughout the network in a push-based fashion. When a customer (e.g., CNN) updates its content, the new content is replicated throughout the network. In contrast, a proxy server will cache new content when it is requested by the first client.


The peer-to-peer model assumes that each entity in the network has equivalent functionality. In essence, it can play the role of a client or a server. Ideally, this reduces bottlenecks and enables each entity to contribute resources to the system. Unfortunately, it doesn't always work that way. One of the early papers on peer-to-peer systems was Free Riding on Gnutella, a paper that demonstrated that peers often free ride by taking resources (downloading files, in this case) and never contributing resources (uploading files).

In addition, enabling communication in such a system is challenging. First, peers must locate other peers in order to participate in the system. This is rarely done in a truly distributed or peer-to-peer fashion. For example, Napster, often cited (controversially) as the first real example of peer-to-peer computing, used a centralized mechanism for joining the network and searching for content. Searching for content or other resources is the second big challenging in implementing peer-to-peer systems. It can be very inefficient to locate resources in a peer-to-peer system and a hybrid, or partially centralized, solution is often employed.

Hierarchical or superpeer systems, like Skype, are also widely used. In these systems, peers are organized in a tree-like structure. Typically, more capable peers are elected to become superpeers (or supernodes). Superpeers act on behalf of downstream peers and can reduce communication overhead.


Mobile Code/Agents

The previous models assume that the client/server/peer entities exchange data. The mobile code model assumes that components may exchange code. An example of this is Java Applets. When your browser downloads and applet, it downloads some Java code that it then runs locally. The big issue with this model is that it introduces security risks. No less a security threat are mobile agents -- processes that can move from machine to machine.

Network Computers/Thin Clients

The network computer model assumes that the end user machine is a low-end computer that maintains a minimal OS. When it boots, it retrieves the OS and files/applications from a central server and runs applications locally. The thin client model is similar, though assumes that the process runs remotely and the client machine simply displays results (e.g., X-windows and VNC).

This model has been around for quite some time, but has recently received much attention. Google and Amazon are both promoting "cloud computing". Sun's Sun Ray technology also makes for an interesting demonstration. Though this model has yet to see success, it is beginning to look more promising.

Mobile Devices

There is an increasing need to develop distributed systems that can run atop devices such as cell phones, cameras, and MP3 players. Unlike traditional distributed computing entities, which communicate over the Internet or standard local area networks, these devices often communicate via wireless technologies such as Bluetooth or other low bandwidth and/or short range mechanisms. As a result, the geographic location of the devices impacts system design. Moreover, mobile systems must take care to consider the battery constraints of the participating devices. System design for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), sensor networks, and delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs) is a very active area of research.

Fundamental Models

Or, understanding the characteristics that impact distributed system performance and operation.


Fundamentally, distributed systems are comprised of entities that communicate and coordinate by passing messages. The following characteristics of communication channels impact the performance of the system:

Additionally, coordination of the actions of entities in a distributed system is impacted by the fact that each entity will have a different clock drift rate. Synchronous distributed systems that rely on certain actions happening at the same time can only be built if you can guarantee bounds on system resources and clock drift rates. Most of the systems that we will discuss are asynchronous; there are no guarantees about the time at which actions will occur.

Generally, it is sufficient to know the order in which events occur. A logical clock is a counter that allows a system to keep track of when events occur in relation to other events.


It is important to understand the kinds of failures that may occur in a system.


There are several potential threats a system designer need be aware of:

Cryptography and authentication are often used to provide security. Communication entities can use a shared secret (key) to ensure that they are communicating with one another and to encrypt their messages so that they cannot be read by attackers.

Sami Rollins

Date: 2007-12-18